Conference of the Powers takes place in Moscow
The representatives of the United Nations of America: Foreign Minister Cordell Hull, Ambassador W. Averell Harriman, Green H. Hackworth; the representatives of the Soviet Union: V. Molotov, Marshall H.E. Woroschilov, Deputy Foreign Commissioner Litvinov, A.Y. Vishinsky; the representatives of Great Britain: Foreign Minister Anthony Eden, Lieutenant General Sir Hastings Ismay, Ambassador Sir Archibald Clark Kerr, Mr. William Strang.
The Foreign Ministers of the United States of America, Great Britain and the Soviet Union declare:
Their three governments are in perfect agreement on the following basic principle of the allied forces’ policies towards Italy: fascism, with its pernicious influence and consequences, must be totally eradicated and the Italian people be given every opportunity to form their government and all other institutions on a democratic basis.
In the context of these policies the three Foreign Ministers are unanimously of the opinion that the implementation of the following measures is vital:
- The Italian Government needs – this is vital – to achieve a more democratic character by including representatives of those social classes which have been opponents of Fascism from the beginning.
- Freedom of expression, freedom of religion and political persuasion, freedom of the press and freedom of assembly are to be given back to the Italian people without restrictions; the creation of anti-fascist political groups will be allowed.
- All institutions and organization created by the fascist regime have to be abolished.
- All fascist and pro-fascist elements have to be eliminated from civil administrations, civil institutions and organisations.
- All political prisoners of the fascist regime have to be released and amnestied.
- The administration of boroughs is to be formed in a democratic way.
- Leading fascists and officers, who are known to be or suspected of being war criminals, must be arrested and be brought to trial.
Further, it has been agreed that none of the clauses of this declaration can be allowed to compromise the right of the Italian people to eventually decide themselves on their form of government.
The governments of the United States of America, Great Britain, the Soviet Union and China have unanimously decided, in accordance with the declaration of 1 January 1942 and later declarations, to continue the fight against the Powers of the Axis, with whom they are at war, until they capitulate unconditionally.
They are aware of their responsibility to protect their own peoples and the countries allied with them against the threat by attacking.
They realise the necessity to ensure a smooth and fast transition from war to peace and to create and maintain peace and international security, while using as little as possible of the human and economic resources of the world for armament purposes.
Accordingly, they jointly declare:
- The unity of action, to which they committed themselves for waging war against their enemies, will also be kept afterwards for the organisation and maintenance of peace and international security.
- The powers, which are waging war against a common enemy, will act jointly in all matters relating to his capitulation and disarming.
- They will take any measures which appear necessary in order to prevent any breach of the conditions imposed upon the enemy.
- They acknowledge the necessity to create as soon as possible a general international organisation for the maintenance of peace and international security. It must be based on the principle of sovereign equality of all peace-loving nations and be open to all those states, no matter whether big or small.
- To maintain peace and international security until re-establishment of law and order and until the creation of a system of international security, they will jointly discuss and, if necessary, consult with other members of the United Nations regarding joint action in the name of the community of nations.
- After the end of the hostilities their armed forces will be used in other states only for the objects stated in this declaration and after joint discussion.
- They will discuss and work together, also with other members of the United Nations, in order to reach a feasible general agreement regarding the armament issue in the post-war period.
The governments of Great Britain, the Soviet Union and the United States of America agree that Austria, which was the first free country to fall victim to the Nazi aggression, is to be freed from German occupation.
They consider the annexation of Austria on 13 March 1938, brought about by the German attack, as null and void. None of the changes which took place in Austria since then are considered binding by them. They wish the re-establishment of a free and independent Austria. This will open the way to political and economic security for Austria and her neighbouring countries which are facing similar problems. This is the only basis for lasting peace.
However, it is again pointed out to the Austrian people that it cannot escape the responsibility which it has taken on by participating in the war alongside Hitler Germany. Without any doubt, the final settlement will take into account how much Austria contributed to freeing herself.